La femme et le TGV is on the short list for Best Live Action Short Film.
Birkin has the leading role in the 2016 short, by Swiss director Timo von Gunten, playing Elise, a woman whose daily routine for 30 years includes waving at the TGV train that passes her house. Her life changes when she finds a letter from the driver.
The 30 minute film has been described as light and enchanting, bringing to mind work like Chocolat or Amélie.
Birkin's film career stretches back to 1965, with roles in key British films of that era including Blowup, meeting partner Serge Gainsbourg on the filming of the movie Slogan in 1969.
She's gone on to star in dozens of French and English language films in subsequent decades, with directors including Agnès Varda, Jean-Luc Godard, Bertrand Tavernier and Alain Resnais, as well as Gainsbourg and her later partner Jacques Doillon.
Elsewhere in the Oscars, Isabelle Huppert is in the Best Actress category for the film Elle.
The 89th Academy Awards are held on 26 February 2017.